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Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form
DRI-II Short Form

The DRI-II Short Form is designed for DUI/DWI offender assessment. It is particularly appropriate for use with the reading impaired, in high volume assessment settings and as an alternative retest. The DRI-II Short Form has 73 items and requires 15 to 20 minutes to complete. Reports are scored and printed within 2½ minutes on-site. The DRI-II Short Form is an automated (computer-scored) DUI/DWI offender screening or assessment instrument. It measures offender truthfulness, substance (alcohol and other drugs) use and abuse, driver risk and substance abuse/dependency classification via DSM-IV criteria.


** DRI-II Short Form **
  • DUI/DWI offender assessment
  • Reading impaired DUI offender testing
  • DUI offender screening in high volume settings
  • An alternative retest
  • Available in English and Spanish

Five DRI-II Short Form Scales (Measures)

The five DRI-II Short Form scales are described as follows:

  1. Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful the offender was while completing the DRI-II Short Form. It detects denial, problem minimization and attempts to fake good.
  2. Alcohol Scale: Measures alcohol (beer, wine and other liquor) use and abuse. This scale measures the severity of alcohol use or abuse.
  3. Drugs Scale: Measures the severity of illicit drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
  4. Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale: Utilizes DSM-IV criteria to classify substance abuse or substance dependency. This is in contrast to the alcohol and drugs severity measures discussed earlier.
  5. Driver Risk Scale: Measures driver risk independent of substance (alcohol or other drugs) use or abuse. Some people are simply dangerous drivers.

* * * * *

The DRI-II Short Form assesses attitudes and behaviors, yielding a DUI/DWI offender profile. The DRI-II Short Form was developed as an alternative to the DRI-II. It is much more than just another alcohol and drug test; consequently, the DRI-II Short Form measures important behaviors missed by other DUI/DWI offender tests.

Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Test Booklet

DRI-II Short Form test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 73 items that are written at a high 5th grade to a low 6th grade level. If a person can read the newspaper, they can read the DRI-II Short Form. It takes 15 minutes to complete the test. DRI-II Short Form test booklets are available in both English and Spanish.

Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Reports

In brief, DRI-II Short Form reports summarize the DUI/DWI offender's self-reported court history, explain what attained scores mean and offer specific score-related recommendations.

Significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to the built-in interview (the last sequence of multiple choice items) are presented. Emphasis has been placed on having meaningful, easily understood and helpful reports. To review an example report, click on the DRI-II Short Form Example Report link.


The DRI-II Short Form is available in Windows format. Windows diskettes require a one-time computer setup procedure after which DRI-II Short Form data diskettes are used.

Training manuals are provided. New test users can be walked through these procedures over Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.  (Risk & Needs) telephone line.

Proprietary DRI-II Short Form diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes score, interpret and print DRI-II Short Form reports on-site. Once a DRI-II Short Form account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. When all test applications are used, diskettes are returned to Risk & Needs where the test data and demographics are downloaded into the DRI-II Short Form database for subsequent research analysis. The proprietary "delete names" program is activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all client names from diskettes before they are returned to Risk & Needs. Deleting all test user names insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Database

The DRI-II Short Form system contains a proprietary database. Earlier, it was noted that all DRI-II Short Form used diskettes are returned to Risk & Needs, and the test data along with related demographics are downloaded into the DRI-II Short Form database. This database (over one million DRI, DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form tests) allows ongoing research and testing program summary capabilities that were not possible before. Ongoing research insures quality control. Test program summaries provide program self-evaluation.

No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any test database.

Built-in Database: Permits ongoing research and annual program summary -- at no additional cost. As discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50 tests on a diskette are used, that diskette is returned to Risk & Needs, checked for any viruses and downloaded into the expanding DRI-II Short Form database. This proprietary database includes over one million DUI/DWI offenders' test data. Advantages of a built-in database are many and include database (research) analysis and annual summary reports.

After downloading test data returned diskettes are destroyed.

Returned DRI-II Short Form diskettes from an agency, department or state can be selected from the database for research analysis. The DRI-II Short Form is restandardized annually on a state-by-state basis -- at no cost to users. Database analysis insures quality control.

Similarly, returned diskettes can be summarized on a state, department or agency basis -- at no cost to users. Annual summary reports provide information for testing program self-evaluation. An annual summary report can be reviewed by clicking on the Annual Summary Report link.

In summary, having all used DRI-II Short Form test data centrally filed at Risk & Needs' offices in the DRI-II Short Form database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient research that includes scale alpha coefficients, frequency distributions, correlations, ANOVA, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and accuracy determinations. We continue to study the effects of demographics and are undertaking recidivism prediction studies. Click on the DRI-II Short Form Research Study link to review a Short Form research study.

As reported in Government Technology (Vol. 3, #5, May 1990) "NHTSA concluded the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI) was the best . . . It (DRI) appears to be by far the most carefully constructed test." And now, after years of research, the DRI has been improved. These improved tests are called the DRI-II and the DRI-II Short Form. An abstract of the NHTSA review article can be seen by clicking on the NHTSA (DOT HS 807 475) link.

Annual Summary Report

Risk & Needs can access each of its tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics, court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program? Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Risk & Needs' annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually. An Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this Annual Summary Report link.

Reliability, Validity and Accuracy

The DRI-II Short Form has a built-in database that insures inclusion of all tests administered in a confidential (no names) manner. Over one million DUI/DWI offenders are represented in the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form database. And, these reliability, validity and accuracy statistics are reported in the document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis has revealed that DRI-II Short Form scales maintain very high reliability coefficients and minimum inter-scale correlations.

For example, the internal consistencies (coefficient alphas) for DRI-II scales are reported below for 24,354 DUI offenders screened in the year 2002. This is one among several year 2002 samples. We initially discuss the DRI-II's statistics then introduce the DRI-II Short Form's statistics before presenting DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scale correlations.

DRI-II Scales Coefficient
Truthfulness .90 p<.001
Alcohol .92 p<.001
Drugs .91 p<.001
Driver Risk .87 p<.001
Stress Coping Abilities .92 p<.001
Substance Abuse/Dependency .93 p<.001


The Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale is a classification scale based on DSM-IV criteria. In contrast, the Alcohol and Drugs Scales are measurement scales. They measure the severity of alcohol and drug abuse.

All DRI-II scales have alpha coefficients well above the professionally accepted standard of .75 and are highly reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level of significance.

Many DRI-II Short Form studies have been conducted on thousands (not just hundreds, but thousands) of DUI/DWI offenders using several validation methods. There are now over one million DUI/DWI offenders' test data in the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form database.

Reliability of the DRI-II Short Form

Within-test reliability, or inter-item reliability coefficient alphas for the DRI-II Short Form are presented in the table below. Alpha coefficients of .75 are professionally accepted standard for test reliability. Alpha coefficients above .85 are considered very reliable. There are 8,145 DUI offenders included in this analysis.

DRI-II Short Form Scales Coefficient
Truthfulness .85 p<.001
Alcohol .91 p<.001
Driver Risk .85 p<.001
Drugs .86 p<.001
Substance Abuse/Dependency* .85 p<.001

*The Substance Abuse/Dependency Classification Scale is a classification, as opposed to a measurement scale, as derived from DSM-IV criteria. Dependency and abuse items do not measure the extent to which predicted criteria are met. However, the Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale's coefficient alpha is included here because it demonstrates that DSM-IV dependency and abuse items, as incorporated in the DRI-II Short Form, are also reliable.

Early studies used criterion measures and were validated with many other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Mortimer-Filkins, MacAndrews, SAQ-Adult Probation III, etc. Much of this research is summarized in the document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." And subsequently, many DRI-II studies support DRI-II Short Form reliability and validity studies.

DRI-II Short Form scales correlate highly significantly with comparable DRI-II scales. Correlation coefficients between DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scales for 6,394 DUI/DWI offenders are:


 DRI-II SHORT FORM  (N=6,394, 2002)
DRI-II and
DRI-II Short Form Scales
Truthfulness Scale .96
Alcohol Scale .98
Driver Risk Scale .93
Drugs Scale .97

Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients demonstrate a very high correlation between DRI-II and comparable DRI-II Short Form scales. These correlation coefficients are so high that it is safe to conclude that the DRI-II Short Form scales measure essentially the same attitudes/behaviors that are measured with the comparable DRI-II scales. A correlation coefficient of zero refers to no relationship between variables; whereas, a correlation coefficient of 1.0 refers to a perfect relationship or correlation. In the above table, DRI-II Short Form scale items were correlated against the DRI-II scales in this sample of DRI-II data. DRI-II Short Form scales are subsets of DRI-II scales (same or similar items are in both tests), and they are shown to be highly correlated with the DRI-II scales. Along with having fewer test items per scale, the DRI-II Short Form does not include the Stress Coping Abilities Scale. For DUI/DWI offender assessment, test users now have a choice: DRI-II or DRI-II Short Form.

Independent researchers have conducted their own validation studies, e.g., Fred Marsteller, Emory University, School of Medicine and Donald Davignon, Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc (Risk & Needs); Barry Leshowitz, Arizona State University; Edward Birkel and David Wegner, Nebraska Probation Department; etc. and report impressive results. The Marsteller and Davignon research study can be reviewed by clicking on the Marsteller-Davignon Research Study link. The Birkel and Wegner publication can be reviewed by clicking on the Birkel-Wegner Publication link. Dr. Davignon's latest DRI-II research publication can be reviewed by clicking on the Davignon Research Study link.

The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), after reviewing all major DUI offender assessment tests, concluded the DRI was "by far the most carefully constructed" (DOT HS 807 475). And, as reported in Government Technology (Vol. 3, #5, May 1990), "The Driver Risk Inventory was rated by NHTSA as the best." It is reasonable to conclude that the DRI-II and the DRI-II Short Form are reliable, valid and accurate. An NHTSA report abstract can be reviewed by clicking on the NHTSA (DOT HS 807 475) link.

Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Scale Interpretation

There are several levels of DRI-II Short Form scale interpretation ranging from viewing the DRI-II Short Form as a self-report to interpreting scale elevations and scale interrelationships. Scale interpretation is discussed on the DRI-II webpage. With the exception of the Stress Coping Abilities Scale (not included in the DRI-II Short Form), all other DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scales are highly correlated. Consequently, visitors interested in scale interpretation are referred to this DRI-II Interpretation link, which will take them to the scale interpretation discussion on the DRI-II webpage.

NHTSA Research

An abstract of the NHTSA research project titled "Assessment of Classification Instruments Designed to Detect Alcohol Abuse" (DOT HS 807 475) can be read by clicking on the NHTSA Research link.

Staff Member Input

Some people advocate fully automated assessment. Risk & Needs does not. The DRI-II Short Form is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment. When available, court records should be reviewed because they can contain important information that was not provided or was incorrectly provided by the DUI/DWI offender. Experienced evaluators should also interview the client. For these reasons, the following statement is contained on each DRI-II Short Form report: "DRI-II Short Form results are confidential and should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon DRI-II Short Form results. The DRI-II Short Form is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff judgment."

Unique DRI-II Short Form Features

Truthfulness Scale: Identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. It is now known that most DUI/DWI offenders attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is a necessary component in contemporary tests. The DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness studies and experienced staff judgment. The DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. In some respects, the DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree or disagree with.

Truth-Corrected Scores: Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI's K-Scale correction. The DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5 scales. The Truth Correction equation then converts raw scores to Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw scores. Raw scores reflect what the DUI/DWI offender wants you to know. Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the offender is attempting to hide.

Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale: Categorizes DUI/DWI offenders as substance abusers or substance dependent in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. Other DUI/DWI tests without this scale cannot classify DUI/DWI offenders according to DSM-IV criteria. Such classification augments the Alcohol Scale and Drugs Scale's severity of abuse measures. The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) notes there are exceptions to DSM-IV classification, and these exceptions are made according to the severity of the client's substance abuse. In other words, exceptions to DSM-IV substance (alcohol and other drugs) abuse/dependency classification can be determined by the severity of abuse. The severity of a client's substance abuse determines their recommended levels of intervention or treatment.

Driver Risk Scale: Measures driving risk independent of substance (alcohol and other drugs) use or abuse. Some people are simply dangerous drivers. These individuals would benefit from driver education and training. To adequately understand a DUI/DWI offender's driving risk, it is important to know their driver attitude and aggressiveness. It sounds obvious, yet NHTSA noted that no other major DUI/DWI offender test has a Driver Risk Scale.

More than just another alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and drugs, the DRI-II Short Form assesses other important areas of inquiry like truthfulness, denial, faking and driving safety. The DRI-II Short Form is specifically designed for DUI/DWI offender assessment. It provides the information needed for comprehensive DUI/DWI offender screening.

Three ways to give the DRI-II Short Form. The DRI-II Short Form can be administered in three different ways: 1. Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. DRI-II Short Form English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available. 2. Tests can be given directly on the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for DRI-II Short Form testing. And, 3. Human Voice Audio in English or Spanish is available. This involves a headset, and the DUI/DWI offender uses the up-down arrow keys. As the client goes from question to answer with the arrow keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the monitor and concurrently read to the client in either English or Spanish. These three test administration modes are discussed in the "DRI-II Orientation and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some limitations. Risk & Needs offers these three test modes so test users can select the administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.

Reading Impaired Assessment: Reading impaired DUI/DWI offenders represent 20+ percent of the offenders tested. This represents a serious problem to other DUI/DWI tests. Risk & Needs has developed two alternatives for dealing with this problem: 1. Human Voice Audio and 2. DRI-II Short Form.

Human Voice Audio: Presentation of the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form is in English and Spanish. DUI/DWI offenders' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening reading impaired DUI/DWI offenders.

DRI-II Short Form: Approximately 20+ percent of DUI/DWI offenders are reading impaired. The DRI-II Short Form offers a practical alternative for screening reading impaired individuals. It is also an alternative for high volume assessment settings.

The DRI-II Short Form has 73 items and takes approximately 15 or 20 minutes to complete. All DRI-II Short Form scales correlate significantly with corresponding DRI-II scales. The Stress Coping Abilities Scale was not included in the DRI-II Short Form because of its length. The DRI-II Short Form is written at a 5th to 6th grade reading level. The DRI-II Short Form can also serve as an alternative retest instrument.

Confidentiality: Risk & Needs encourages test users to delete DUI/DWI offender names from diskettes before they are returned to Risk & Needs. Once client names are deleted, they are gone and cannot be retrieved. Deleting client names does not delete demographics or test data, which is downloaded into the DRI-II Short Form database for subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).

Test Data Input Verification: Allows the person that inputs test data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet strongly recommended by Risk & Needs.

Inventory of Scientific Findings: Much of the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form research has been gathered together in a 92-plus-page document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings." This document summarizes DRI-II Short Form research chronologically - as the studies were completed. This chronological reporting format was established largely because of the DRI-II and the DRI-II Short Form database, which permits annual database analysis of all tests administered. The document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of Scientific Findings" contains over one million DUI/DWI offenders' DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form test data.

Staff Training: Risk & Needs' staff are available to participate in DRI-II Short Form training programs conducted by statewide programs, departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site training. Risk & Needs typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour DRI-II Short Form training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring, as desired.  Risk & Needs gives attendees certificates attesting to their DRI-II Short Form training.

Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Risk & Needs' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m. to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact Risk & Needs at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.

Why select the Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form?

The DRI-II Short Form meets and exceeds most DUI/DWI offender screening criteria. It is endorsed by users, courts, evaluators, peers, psychologists and is even incorporated in some state DUI statutes. It is widely used in the United States with over 150,000 DRI-II tests being administered yearly. There are over one million DUI/DWI offenders' test data in the DRI-II database. The DRI-II Short Form has been repeatedly demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. Ongoing research continues to study and adjust for demographics like age, gender and ethnicity (race).

The DRI-II Short Form's five scales measure truthfulness, classify substance abuse and dependency in accordance with DSM-IV criteria, quantify the severity of alcohol and drug abuse and assess driver risk.

The DRI-II Short Form's built-in database facilitates cost efficient database analysis and annual testing program summary. These two unique features -- ongoing database analysis and annual summary reports -- are provided free.

DUI/DWI offenders' DRI-II Short Form reports are timely (available on-site in 2½ minutes), readable and easy to understand. Score-related recommendations are relevant. It's reasonable to conclude the DRI-II Short Form is the state-of-the-art in contemporary DUI/DWI short form assessment and screening. And, Risk & Needs doesn't stop there!  The DRI-II Short Form is very affordable. To review DRI-II Short Form costs, click on the Test Unit Fee (Cost) link.

Advantages of Screening

Screening or assessment instruments filter out individuals with serious problems that may require referral for a more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:

Risk Range
Low Risk 0 - 39% 39%
Medium Risk 40 - 69% 30%
Problem Risk 70 - 89% 20%
Severe Problem 90 -100% 11%

Reference to the above table shows that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile or higher. And, these risk range percentiles are based upon the thousands of DUI/DWI offenders that have taken the Driver Risk Inventory-II and the DRI-II Short Form. This procedure is eminently fair, and it avoids extremes, i.e., over-identification and under-identification of problems.

A state, department, court or agency's policy might only refer clients with identified problems for further evaluation, intervention or treatment. In this case, 31% of the people screened (Problem Risk and Severe Problem) would be referred. Or, policy might refer clients with serious problems (Severe Problem, 11%) for additional services. In these examples, either 69% or 89% (contingent upon adopted policy) of the people screened would not be referred for additional (and expensive) services.

Budgetary savings (dollars) would be large with no compromises in needy people receiving appropriate evaluation and/or treatment services. Indeed, more needy people would receive help. Without a screening program, there is usually more risk of over or under-utilization of additional professional services.

DRI-II Short Form scales identify the areas they screen. And, these scales (measures) are: 1. Truthfulness Scale, 2. Alcohol Scale, 3. Drugs Scale, 4. Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale and 5. Driver Risk Scale.

Test Unit Fee (Cost)

When comparing different tests' prices, be aware of the à la carte finesse or stratagem. By billing everything (e.g., test booklets, testing, manuals, training, summary reports, research, etc.) separately, some publishers claim low costs when in fact their total cost for test services and materials is much higher. Risk & Needs' test unit fee is very affordable.

Selecting a DUI/DWI Offender Test

If you are selecting a DUI/DWI offender assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column represents any other test you might want to compare to the DRI-II Short Form.

Designed Specifically for DUI/DWI Evaluation Yes  
Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided Yes  
Test Completed in 15 to 20 Minutes Yes  
On-Site Reports within 2½ Minutes Yes  
Truthfulness Scale to Detect Faking Yes  
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy Yes  
Three Test Administration Options Yes  
  1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish) Yes  
  2. On Computer Screen (English and Spanish) Yes  
  3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish) Yes  
Delete Client Names (insures confidentiality) Yes  
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant Yes  
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy) Yes  
Available in English and Spanish Yes  
Built-in Database at No Additional Cost Yes  
Annual Database Research (Free) Yes  
Annual Testing Program Summary (Free) Yes  
Alcohol and Drugs Scales Yes  
DSM-IV Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale Yes  
Driver Risk Scale Yes  
Large Research Database Yes  
Easily Understood Reports Yes  
ASAM Compatible Recommendations Yes  
Staff Training (Free) Yes  
Examination Kits (Free) Yes  
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee Yes  

It is advantageous to use a test with empirically based long (140 test items, 30 minutes) and short (73 items, 15 to 20 minutes) forms.  It's also helpful to both classify offenders as abusers, dependant or non-pathological users, while also being able to determine the severity of alcohol and drug abuse.  And some courts like the utilization of ASAM compatible recommendations.


The DRI-II Short Form report is 3 pages in length and takes 2 minutes or less to score and print on-site. An example DRI-II Short Form report is printed below. The DRI-II Short Form incorporates 5 DRI-II scales, and the format of its report closely resembles that of the DRI-II report.

Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc.
P.O. Box 44828
Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4828.

Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227
and our e-mail address is sheryl@riskandneeds.com.

Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc. Copyright © 2007