The DRI-II Short Form is designed for
DUI/DWI offender assessment. It is particularly appropriate for use with the
reading impaired, in high volume assessment settings and as an alternative
retest. The DRI-II Short Form has 73 items and requires 15 to
20 minutes to complete. Reports are scored and printed within 2½ minutes
on-site. The DRI-II Short Form is an automated (computer-scored) DUI/DWI offender
screening or assessment instrument. It measures offender truthfulness,
substance (alcohol and other drugs) use and abuse, driver risk and substance
abuse/dependency classification via DSM-IV criteria.
** DRI-II Short Form **
DUI/DWI offender assessment
Reading impaired DUI offender testing
DUI offender screening in high volume settings
An alternative retest
Available in English and Spanish
Five DRI-II Short Form Scales
The five DRI-II Short Form scales are described as follows:
Truthfulness Scale: Measures how truthful
the offender was while completing the DRI-II Short Form. It detects denial, problem minimization
and attempts to fake good.
Alcohol Scale: Measures alcohol (beer, wine
and other liquor) use and abuse. This scale measures the severity of alcohol use or abuse.
Drugs Scale: Measures the severity of illicit
drug use and abuse. Drugs refer to marijuana, crack, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates and heroin.
Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale: Utilizes
DSM-IV criteria to classify substance abuse or substance dependency. This is in contrast to the
alcohol and drugs severity measures discussed earlier.
Driver Risk Scale: Measures driver risk
independent of substance (alcohol or other drugs) use or abuse. Some people are simply dangerous
* * * * *
The DRI-II Short Form assesses
attitudes and behaviors, yielding a DUI/DWI offender profile. The DRI-II Short
Form was developed as an alternative to the DRI-II. It is much more than just another
alcohol and drug test; consequently, the DRI-II Short Form measures important
behaviors missed by other DUI/DWI offender tests.
Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Test Booklet
DRI-II Short Form test booklets are provided free. These booklets contain 73 items that are
written at a high 5th grade to a low 6th grade level. If a person can read
the newspaper, they can read the DRI-II Short Form. It takes 15 minutes to complete the test.
DRI-II Short Form test booklets are available in both English and Spanish.
Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Reports
In brief, DRI-II Short Form reports summarize the DUI/DWI offender's self-reported court history,
explain what attained scores mean and offer specific score-related recommendations.
Significant items (direct admissions) are highlighted, and answers to the built-in interview (the
last sequence of multiple choice items) are presented. Emphasis has been placed on having meaningful,
easily understood and helpful reports. To review an example report, click on the
DRI-II Short Form Example Report link.
The DRI-II Short Form is available in Windows format.
Windows diskettes require a one-time computer setup procedure after which DRI-II Short
Form data diskettes are used.
Training manuals are provided. New test users can be walked through these procedures over
Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc. (Risk & Needs) telephone line.
Proprietary DRI-II Short Form
diskettes contain 25 or 50 test applications. These 3½" diskettes
score, interpret and print DRI-II Short Form reports on-site. Once a DRI-II
Short Form account is established, ordered diskettes are mailed to users. When
all test applications are used, diskettes are returned to Risk & Needs where the test
data and demographics are downloaded into the DRI-II Short Form database for
subsequent research analysis. The proprietary "delete names" program is
activated by the test user with a few keystrokes to delete all client names
from diskettes before they are returned to Risk & Needs. Deleting all test user names
insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA (federal regulation
45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Database
The DRI-II Short Form system contains
a proprietary database. Earlier, it was noted that all DRI-II Short Form used
diskettes are returned to Risk & Needs, and the test data along with related
demographics are downloaded into the DRI-II Short Form database. This database
(over one million DRI, DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form tests) allows ongoing research and
testing program summary capabilities that were not possible before. Ongoing
research insures quality control. Test program summaries provide program self-evaluation.
No personal information, names, social security numbers, etc. are ever downloaded into any
Database: Permits ongoing research and annual program summary --
at no additional cost. As discussed earlier, when the 25 or 50 tests on a
diskette are used, that diskette is returned to Risk & Needs, checked for any viruses
and downloaded into the expanding DRI-II Short Form database. This proprietary
database includes over one million DUI/DWI offenders' test data. Advantages of
a built-in database are many and include database (research) analysis and
annual summary reports.
After downloading test data returned diskettes are destroyed.
Returned DRI-II Short Form diskettes
from an agency, department or state can be selected from the database for
research analysis. The DRI-II Short Form is restandardized annually on a
state-by-state basis -- at no cost to users. Database analysis insures quality control.
Similarly, returned diskettes can be
summarized on a state, department or agency basis -- at no cost to users.
Annual summary reports provide information for testing program
self-evaluation. An annual summary report can be reviewed by clicking
Annual Summary Report link.
In summary, having all used DRI-II
Short Form test data centrally filed at Risk & Needs' offices in the DRI-II Short Form
database has many advantages. Database analysis permits ongoing cost efficient
research that includes scale alpha coefficients, frequency distributions,
correlations, ANOVA, cross-tab statistics along with reliability, validity and
accuracy determinations. We continue to study the effects of demographics and
are undertaking recidivism prediction studies. Click on the
DRI-II Short Form Research Study link
to review a Short Form research study.
As reported in Government Technology
(Vol. 3, #5, May 1990) "NHTSA concluded the Driver Risk Inventory (DRI) was
the best . . . It (DRI) appears to be by far the most carefully constructed
test." And now, after
years of research, the DRI has been improved. These improved tests are called
the DRI-II and the DRI-II Short Form.
An abstract of the NHTSA review article can be seen by
clicking on the
NHTSA (DOT HS 807 475) link.
Annual Summary Report
Risk & Needs can access each of its
tests' built-in databases for statistical analysis and summarization of all
tests administered in a year. Annual Summary Reports are prepared
for state, department, agency and even some individual providers -- at no
cost to them. These reports are provided as a professional courtesy
to large volume test users. Summary reports include demographics,
court-history when relevant, and test statistics (reliability, validity
and accuracy). Has anyone offered to summarize your testing program?
Annually? At no additional cost to you? Minimum testing volume for
annual reports is 350 tests. There is no maximum limit. Risk & Needs'
annual reports range in size from 350 tests to over 55,000 tests annually.
An Annual Summary Report can be viewed by clicking on this
Annual Summary Report link.
Validity and Accuracy
The DRI-II Short Form has a built-in
database that insures inclusion of all tests administered in a confidential
(no names) manner. Over one million DUI/DWI offenders are represented in the
DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form database. And, these reliability, validity and accuracy
statistics are reported in the document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of
Scientific Findings." Annual database analysis has revealed that DRI-II Short
Form scales maintain very high reliability coefficients and minimum
For example, the internal consistencies (coefficient alphas) for DRI-II scales are reported below
for 24,354 DUI offenders screened in the year 2002. This is one among several year 2002
samples. We initially discuss the DRI-II's statistics then introduce the DRI-II
Short Form's statistics before presenting DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scale correlations.
RELIABILITY OF THE DRI-II (N=24,354, 2002)
Stress Coping Abilities
The Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale
is a classification scale based on DSM-IV criteria. In contrast, the Alcohol
and Drugs Scales are measurement scales. They measure the
severity of alcohol and drug abuse.
All DRI-II scales have alpha coefficients well above the professionally accepted standard of .75
and are highly reliable. All coefficient alphas are significant at the p<.001 level of significance.
Many DRI-II Short Form studies have
been conducted on thousands (not just hundreds, but thousands) of DUI/DWI
offenders using several validation methods. There are now over one million
DUI/DWI offenders' test data in the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form database.
Reliability of the DRI-II Short Form
Within-test reliability, or
inter-item reliability coefficient alphas for the DRI-II Short Form are
presented in the table below. Alpha coefficients of .75 are professionally accepted
test reliability. Alpha coefficients above .85 are considered
very reliable. There are 8,145 DUI offenders included in this analysis.
RELIABILITY OF THE DRI-II SHORT FORM (N=8,145, 2002)
DRI-II Short Form Scales
*The Substance Abuse/Dependency
Classification Scale is a classification, as opposed to a measurement scale,
as derived from DSM-IV criteria. Dependency and abuse items do not measure the
extent to which predicted criteria are met. However, the Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale's coefficient alpha is included here because it demonstrates
that DSM-IV dependency and abuse items, as incorporated in the DRI-II Short
Form, are also reliable.
Early studies used criterion measures
and were validated with many other tests, e.g., Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI), Mortimer-Filkins, MacAndrews, SAQ-Adult
Probation III, etc. Much of this research is summarized in the document titled "DRI-II: An
Inventory of Scientific Findings." And subsequently, many DRI-II studies
support DRI-II Short Form reliability and validity studies.
DRI-II Short Form scales correlate
highly significantly with comparable DRI-II scales. Correlation coefficients
between DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scales for 6,394 DUI/DWI offenders are:
CORRELATION OF THE DRI-II AND DRI-II SHORT FORM (N=6,394, 2002)
DRI-II Short Form Scales
Driver Risk Scale
Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Coefficients demonstrate a very high correlation between DRI-II and comparable
DRI-II Short Form scales. These correlation coefficients are so high that it
is safe to conclude that the DRI-II Short Form scales measure essentially the same
attitudes/behaviors that are measured with the comparable DRI-II scales. A correlation coefficient of
zero refers to no relationship between variables; whereas, a correlation
coefficient of 1.0 refers to a perfect relationship or correlation.
In the above table, DRI-II Short Form scale items were correlated against the
DRI-II scales in this sample of DRI-II data. DRI-II Short Form scales are
subsets of DRI-II scales (same or similar items are in both tests), and they
are shown to be highly correlated with the DRI-II scales. Along with having
fewer test items per scale, the DRI-II Short Form does not include the Stress
Coping Abilities Scale. For DUI/DWI offender assessment, test users now have a
choice: DRI-II or DRI-II Short Form.
Independent researchers have
conducted their own validation studies, e.g., Fred Marsteller, Emory
University, School of Medicine and Donald Davignon, Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc (Risk & Needs); Barry Leshowitz, Arizona State University;
Edward Birkel and David Wegner, Nebraska Probation Department; etc. and report
impressive results. The Marsteller and Davignon research study can be reviewed
by clicking on the
Research Study link. The Birkel and Wegner publication
can be reviewed by clicking on the
Birkel-Wegner Publication link. Dr. Davignon's latest DRI-II research
publication can be reviewed by clicking on the
Davignon Research Study link.
The National Highway Traffic Safety
Administration (NHTSA), after reviewing all major DUI offender assessment tests,
concluded the DRI was "by far the most carefully constructed" (DOT HS 807
475). And, as reported in Government Technology (Vol. 3, #5, May 1990), "The
Driver Risk Inventory was rated by NHTSA as the best." It is reasonable to
conclude that the DRI-II and the DRI-II Short Form are reliable, valid and
accurate. An NHTSA report abstract can be reviewed by clicking on the
NHTSA (DOT HS 807 475) link.
Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form Scale Interpretation
There are several levels of DRI-II
Short Form scale interpretation ranging from viewing the DRI-II Short Form
as a self-report to interpreting scale elevations and scale
interrelationships. Scale interpretation is discussed on the DRI-II webpage.
With the exception of the Stress Coping Abilities Scale (not included in the
DRI-II Short Form), all other DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form scales are highly
correlated. Consequently, visitors interested in scale interpretation are
referred to this
Interpretation link, which will take them to the scale interpretation
discussion on the DRI-II webpage.
An abstract of the NHTSA research project titled "Assessment of Classification Instruments
Designed to Detect Alcohol Abuse" (DOT HS 807 475) can be read by
clicking on the
NHTSA Research link.
Staff Member Input
Some people advocate fully automated
assessment. Risk & Needs does not. The DRI-II Short Form is to be used in conjunction
with experienced staff judgment. When available, court records should be
reviewed because they can contain important information that was not provided
or was incorrectly provided by the DUI/DWI offender. Experienced evaluators
should also interview the client. For these reasons, the following statement is
contained on each DRI-II Short Form report: "DRI-II Short Form results are confidential and
should be considered working hypotheses. No diagnosis or decision should be based solely upon
DRI-II Short Form results. The DRI-II Short Form is to be used in conjunction with experienced staff
Unique DRI-II Short Form Features
Identifies denial, problem minimization and faking. It is now known that most
DUI/DWI offenders attempt to minimize their problems. A Truthfulness Scale is
a necessary component in contemporary tests. The DRI-II Short Form's
Truthfulness Scale has been validated with the Minnesota Multiphasic
Personality Inventory (MMPI), polygraph exams, other tests, truthfulness
studies and experienced staff judgment. The DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness
Scale has been demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. In some
respects, the DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness Scale is similar to the MMPI's L
and F-Scales. It consists of a number of items that most people agree or disagree with.
Have proven to be very important for assessment accuracy. This proprietary
truth correction process is comparable to the MMPI's K-Scale correction. The
DRI-II Short Form's Truthfulness Scale has been correlated with the other 5
scales. The Truth Correction equation then converts raw scores to
Truth-Corrected scores. Truth-Corrected scores are more accurate than raw
scores. Raw scores reflect what the DUI/DWI offender wants you to know.
Truth-Corrected scores reveal what the offender is attempting to hide.
Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale: Categorizes DUI/DWI offenders as substance
abusers or substance dependent in accordance with DSM-IV criteria. Other DUI/DWI
tests without this scale cannot classify DUI/DWI offenders according to
DSM-IV criteria. Such classification augments the Alcohol Scale and Drugs
Scale's severity of abuse measures.
The American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) notes there are exceptions
to DSM-IV classification, and these exceptions are made according to the
severity of the client's substance
abuse. In other words, exceptions to DSM-IV substance (alcohol and other
drugs) abuse/dependency classification can be determined by the severity of
abuse. The severity of a client's substance abuse determines their recommended
levels of intervention or treatment.
Driver Risk Scale:
Measures driving risk independent of substance (alcohol and other drugs) use
or abuse. Some people are simply dangerous drivers. These individuals would
benefit from driver education and training. To adequately understand a DUI/DWI
offender's driving risk, it is important to know their driver attitude and
aggressiveness. It sounds obvious, yet NHTSA noted that no other major DUI/DWI
offender test has a Driver Risk Scale.
More than just another
alcohol or drug test. In addition to alcohol and
drugs, the DRI-II Short Form assesses other important areas of inquiry like
truthfulness, denial, faking and driving safety. The DRI-II Short Form is
specifically designed for DUI/DWI offender assessment. It provides the
information needed for comprehensive DUI/DWI offender screening.
Three ways to give the DRI-II Short Form.The DRI-II Short Form can
be administered in three different ways:
Paper-pencil test booklet format is the most popular testing procedure. DRI-II
Short Form English and Spanish test booklets and answer sheets are available.
2. Tests can be given directly on
the computer screen. Some agencies dedicate computers for DRI-II Short Form
testing. And, 3. Human Voice Audio
in English or Spanish is available. This involves a headset, and the DUI/DWI
offender uses the up-down arrow keys. As the client goes from question to
answer with the arrow keys, that question or answer is highlighted on the
monitor and concurrently read to the client in either English or Spanish.
These three test administration modes are discussed in the "DRI-II Orientation
and Training Manual." Each test administration mode has advantages and some
limitations. Risk & Needs offers these three test modes so test users can select the
administration mode that is optimally suited to their needs.
Reading Impaired Assessment:Reading impaired DUI/DWI
offenders represent 20+ percent of the offenders tested. This represents a
serious problem to other DUI/DWI tests. Risk & Needs has developed two alternatives for
dealing with this problem:
1. Human Voice Audio
and 2. DRI-II Short
Human Voice Audio:
Presentation of the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form is in English and Spanish. DUI/DWI
offenders' passive vocabularies are often greater than their active
vocabularies. Hearing items read out loud often helps reduce cultural and
communication problems. This administration mode requires earphones and
simple instructions to orient the client to the up-down arrow keys on the
computer keyboard. Human Voice Audio is an alternative approach for screening
reading impaired DUI/DWI offenders.
DRI-II Short Form:
Approximately 20+ percent of DUI/DWI offenders are reading impaired. The
DRI-II Short Form offers a practical alternative for screening reading
impaired individuals. It is also an alternative for high volume assessment settings.
The DRI-II Short Form has 73 items and takes approximately 15 or 20 minutes to complete. All
DRI-II Short Form scales correlate significantly with corresponding DRI-II scales. The Stress Coping
Abilities Scale was not included in the DRI-II Short Form because of its length. The
DRI-II Short Form is written at a 5th to 6th grade
reading level. The DRI-II Short Form
can also serve as an alternative retest instrument.
Confidentiality:Risk & Needs encourages test users to delete DUI/DWI offender names from diskettes
before they are returned to Risk & Needs. Once client names are deleted, they are gone
and cannot be retrieved. Deleting client names does not delete demographics or
test data, which is downloaded into the DRI-II Short Form database for
subsequent analysis. This proprietary name deletion procedure involves a few
keystrokes and insures client confidentiality and compliance with HIPAA
(federal regulation 45 C.F.R. 164.501).
Test Data Input
Verification: Allows the person that inputs test
data from the answer sheet into the computer to verify the accuracy of their
data input. In brief, test data is input twice, and any inconsistencies between
the first and second data entries are highlighted until corrected. When the
first and second data entries match or are the same, the staff person can
continue. This proprietary Data Input Verification procedure is optional, yet
strongly recommended by Risk & Needs.
Inventory of Scientific
Findings: Much of the DRI-II and DRI-II Short Form
research has been gathered together in a 92-plus-page document titled "DRI-II:
An Inventory of Scientific Findings." This document summarizes DRI-II Short
Form research chronologically - as the studies were completed. This
chronological reporting format was established largely because of the DRI-II
and the DRI-II Short Form database, which permits annual database analysis of
all tests administered. The document titled "DRI-II: An Inventory of
Scientific Findings" contains over one million DUI/DWI offenders' DRI-II and
DRI-II Short Form test data.
Staff Training: Risk & Needs' staff are available to participate
in DRI-II Short Form training programs conducted by statewide programs,
departments and high volume agencies in the United States. Sometimes, smaller
volume providers get together for collective (multiple providers) on-site
training. Risk & Needs typically participates in 4-hour or 6-hour DRI-II Short
Form training sessions. This training can include hands-on computer scoring,
as desired. Risk & Needs gives attendees certificates
attesting to their DRI-II Short Form training.
Staff training is also provided on Fridays at Risk & Needs' Phoenix offices from 8:30 a.m.
to 11:30 a.m. or from 1:30 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. These training sessions are free. To participate, contact
Risk & Needs at least ten days in advance. Participation is on a first call, first scheduled basis.
Why select the Driver Risk Inventory-II Short Form?
The DRI-II Short Form meets and
exceeds most DUI/DWI offender screening criteria. It is endorsed by users,
courts, evaluators, peers, psychologists and is even incorporated in some
state DUI statutes. It is widely used in the United States with over 150,000
DRI-II tests being administered yearly. There are over one million DUI/DWI
offenders' test data in the DRI-II database. The DRI-II Short Form has been
repeatedly demonstrated to be reliable, valid and accurate. Ongoing research
continues to study and adjust for demographics like age, gender and ethnicity (race).
The DRI-II Short Form's five scales measure truthfulness, classify substance abuse and dependency
in accordance with DSM-IV criteria, quantify the severity of alcohol and drug abuse and assess driver
The DRI-II Short Form's built-in
database facilitates cost efficient database analysis and annual testing
program summary. These two unique features -- ongoing database analysis and
annual summary reports -- are provided
DUI/DWI offenders' DRI-II Short Form
reports are timely (available on-site in 2½ minutes), readable and easy to
understand. Score-related recommendations are relevant. It's reasonable to
conclude the DRI-II Short Form is the state-of-the-art in contemporary DUI/DWI
short form assessment and screening. And, Risk & Needs doesn't stop there! The DRI-II
Short Form is very affordable. To review DRI-II Short Form costs, click on the
Test Unit Fee (Cost) link.
Advantages of Screening
Screening or assessment instruments
filter out individuals with serious problems that may require referral for a
more comprehensive evaluation and/or treatment. This filtering system works as follows:
DRI-II SHORT FORM RISK RANGES
Risk Range Percentile
0 - 39%
40 - 69%
70 - 89%
Reference to the above table shows
that a problem is not identified until a scale score is at the 70th percentile
or higher. And, these risk range percentiles are based upon the thousands of
DUI/DWI offenders that have taken the Driver Risk Inventory-II and the DRI-II
Short Form. This procedure is eminently fair, and it avoids extremes, i.e.,
over-identification and under-identification of problems.
A state, department, court or agency's
policy might only refer clients with identified problems for further
evaluation, intervention or treatment. In this case, 31% of the people screened
(Problem Risk and Severe Problem) would be referred. Or, policy might refer
clients with serious problems (Severe Problem, 11%) for additional services.
In these examples, either 69% or 89% (contingent upon adopted policy) of the
people screened would not be referred for additional (and expensive) services.
(dollars) would be large with no compromises in needy people receiving
appropriate evaluation and/or treatment services.
Indeed, more needy people would receive help. Without a screening program,
there is usually more risk of over or under-utilization of additional professional services.
DRI-II Short Form scales identify the areas they screen. And, these scales (measures) are:
1. Truthfulness Scale,
2. Alcohol Scale,
Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale
5. Driver Risk Scale.
Test Unit Fee (Cost)
When comparing different tests'
prices, be aware of the à la carte finesse or stratagem. By billing everything
(e.g., test booklets, testing, manuals, training, summary reports, research,
etc.) separately, some publishers claim low costs when in fact their total
cost for test services and materials is much higher. Risk & Needs' test unit fee is
Selecting a DUI/DWI Offender
If you are selecting a DUI/DWI
offender assessment instrument, the following Comparison Checklist should
prove helpful. It lists important screening test qualities. The "Other" column
represents any other test you might want to compare to the DRI-II Short Form.
Designed Specifically for DUI/DWI
Test Reliability and Validity Research Provided
Test Completed in 15 to 20
On-Site Reports within 2½ Minutes
Truthfulness Scale to Detect
Truth-Corrected Scores for Accuracy
Three Test Administration
1. Paper-Pencil (English and Spanish)
2. On Computer Screen
(English and Spanish)
3. Human Voice Audio (English and Spanish)
Delete Client Names (insures
HIPAA (federal regulation) Compliant
Test Data Input Verification (insures accuracy)
Available in English and Spanish
Built-in Database at No Additional Cost
Annual Database Research (Free)
Annual Testing Program Summary (Free)
Alcohol and Drugs Scales
DSM-IV Substance Abuse/Dependency Scale
Driver Risk Scale
Large Research Database
Easily Understood Reports
ASAM Compatible Recommendations
Staff Training (Free)
Examination Kits (Free)
Very Affordable Test Unit Fee
It is advantageous to use a test with empirically based long (140 test items,
30 minutes) and short (73 items, 15 to 20 minutes) forms. It's also
helpful to both classify offenders as abusers, dependant or non-pathological users, while also being able to determine the severity of
alcohol and drug abuse. And some courts like the utilization of ASAM
The DRI-II Short Form report is 3
pages in length and takes 2 minutes or less to score and print on-site. An
example DRI-II Short Form report is printed below. The DRI-II Short Form incorporates
5 DRI-II scales, and the format of its report closely resembles that of the DRI-II report.
Additional information can be provided upon request by writing:
Risk & Needs Assessment, Inc. P.O. Box 44828 Phoenix, Arizona 85064-4828.
Our telephone number is (602) 234-3506
Our fax number is (602) 266-8227
and our e-mail address is